2.7 Abuse linked to faith or belief
The term ‘belief in spirit possession’ is defined for the purposes of this guidance as the belief that an evil force has entered a child and is controlling him or her. Sometimes the term ‘witch’ is used to signify the belief that a child is able to use an evil force to harm others. There is also a range of other language that is connected to such abuse. This includes black magic, kindoki, ndoki, the evil eye, djinns, voodoo, obeah, demons, and child sorcerers.
In all these cases, genuine beliefs can be held by families, carers, religious leaders, congregations, and the children themselves that evil forces are at work. Families and children can be deeply worried by the evil that they believe is threatening them, and abuse often occurs when an attempt is made to ‘exorcise’, or ‘deliver’ the child. Exorcism is defined as attempting to expel evil spirits from a child (Safeguarding Children from Abuse Linked to a Belief in Spirit Possession).
The belief in ‘possession’ or ‘witchcraft’ is widespread. It is not confined to particular countries, cultures or religions, nor is it confined to new immigrant communities in this country.
Any concerns about a child which arise in this context must be taken seriously.
The number of known cases of child abuse linked to accusations of ‘possession’ or ‘witchcraft’ is small, but children involved can suffer damage to their physical and mental health, their capacity to learn, their ability to form relationships and to their self-esteem. It is likely that a proportion of this type of abuse remains unreported.
Such abuse generally occurs when a carer views a child as being ‘different’, attributes this difference to the child being ‘possessed’ or involved in ‘witchcraft’ and attempts to exorcise him or her.
A child could be viewed as ‘different’ for a variety of reasons such as disobedience; independence; bed-wetting; nightmares; illness; or disability. There is often a weak bond of attachment between the carer and the child.
There are various social reasons that make a child more vulnerable to an accusation of ‘possession’ or ‘witchcraft’. These include family stress and/or a change in the family structure.
The attempt to ‘exorcise’ may involve severe beating, burning, starvation, cutting or stabbing and isolation, and usually occurs in the household where the child lives.
Any siblings or other children in the household may be well cared for with all their needs met by the parents and carers. The other children may have been drawn in by the adults to view the child as ‘different’ and may have been encouraged to participate in the adult activities.
Concerns reported in the cases known from research have involved children aged 2 to 14, both boys and girls, and have generally been reported through schools or non-governmental organisations. The referrals usually take place at a point when the situation has escalated and become visible outside the family.
Note: This means that the child may have been subjected to serious harm for a period of time already.
The initial concerns may include the following issues:
- Issues of neglect, such as not being fed properly or being ‘fasted’, not being clothed, washed properly etc, but left to fend for themselves especially compared to the other children in the household.
- Often the carer is not the natural parent and the family structure can be complex.
- Children often appear distressed and withdrawn.
- The child is seen as the scapegoat for a change in family circumstances for the worse.
- In a group of children it may be the child who is relatively powerless vis-a-vis the parents/carers, maybe a child with no essential role in the family.
- The child is seen as someone who violates the family norms by being physically different perhaps because of illness, disability or, in some cases, a suspicion by the father of adultery by the mother.
Child abuse linked to faith or belief may occur where a child is treated as a scapegoat for perceived failure.
All agencies should be alert to the indicators above and should be able to identify children at risk of this type of abuse and intervene to prevent it.
Protection and action to be taken
In any situation in which there are concerns for the safety and welfare of a child the Referrals procedure must be followed.
An assessment should aim to fully understand the background and context to the beliefs and must involve the particular faith group or person performing or advising the family about the child in order to establish the facts i.e. what is happening to the child. Consideration should be given to asking an independent person to act as an adviser and mediator.
The assessment may include key people in the community especially when working with new immigrant communities and different faith groups. In view of the nature of the risks, a full health assessment of the child should take place to establish the overall health of the child, the medical history and current circumstances.
Further contacts for advice can be found from the local representatives for some faiths, from organisations such as the Churches’ Child Protection Advisory Service (CCPAS) who provide information about exorcism; the African Caribbean Evangelical Alliance (ACEA); Churches Together in England and the Muslim Parliament, all of whom are consulting about and developing guidance.
- An Exploration of Knowledge About Child Abuse Linked to Faith or Belief (2016)
- National Action Plan to Tackle Child Abuse Linked to Faith or Belief (2012)
- Safeguarding Children from Abuse Linked to a Belief in Spirit Possession (2007)
Children Act 1989
Section 47 of the Children Act 1989 empowers local authorities to investigate a referral that a child may have suffered or is at risk of suffering harm. Whilst the Children Act 1989 does not mention the terms witchcraft or spirit possession, it does clarify what constitutes child abuse, which can include harm through witchcraft or spirit possession.
Children Act 2004
Under Section 11 of the Children Act 2004, government bodies and agencies must ‘make arrangements for ensuring that their functions are discharged having regard to the need to safeguard and promote the welfare of children’. This applies to children’s services, health bodies and trusts, and police authorities (including transport police).